De drie organisaties Hydrogen Europe, GIE en ENTSOG hebben een rapport uitgebracht dat in gaat op 27 vragen die te maken hebben met waterstof en infrastructuur.
In deze publicatie worden de antwoorden gegeven: How to transport and store hydrogen – facts and figures (hydrogeneurope.eu).
ENTSOG, GIE and Hydrogen Europe have joined forces on a paper that answers a number of fundamental questions about gaseous and liquid hydrogen transport and storage. This paper provides an objective and informative analysis on key concepts, terminology and facts and figures from different public sources. The following questions are discussed:
1» What are the pathways that allow for the integration of hydrogen in the existing gas infrastructure and market?
2» What is hydrogen blending?
3» What is hydrogen deblending?
4» How much hydrogen can be blended into the existing gas pipelines?
5» What are the advantages of hydrogen blending?
6» Who are the customers of blended H2/natural gas admixtures?
7» What are the limitations on hydrogen blending into the existing gas pipelines?
8» What is hydrogen embrittlement?
9» What is the difference between retrofitting and repurposing existing gas infrastructure for hydrogen?
10» What are the costs of repurposing the existing natural gas infrastructure for 100% hydrogen transport?
11» What are the technical considerations related to repurposing an existing natural gas infrastructure to hydrogen infrastructure?
12» What are the costs of repurposing the existing gas pipelines vs. building new dedicated H2 pipelines?
13» What other options are available to transport hydrogen besides pipelines?
14» Why is there a need for marine and port infrastructure and terminals besides pipelines?
15» What is the cost of transporting hydrogen via pipelines?
16» Do we need medium-long distance transportation infrastructure to transport hydrogen?
17» What is a European hydrogen backbone?
18» What is a Hydrogen Valley?
19» What is the role of hydrogen infrastructure in deploying offshore wind?
20» What is the quality specification for hydrogen transportation via dedicated hydrogen pipelines?
21» How can LNG terminals be used for importing and storing hydrogen?
22» How can LNG terminals be repurposed when methane liquefies at −160°C and hydrogen at −253°C?
23» Are all kinds of gas storage facilities (depleted fields, aquifers, salt caverns) able to store hydrogen? Up to which density?
24» How can large-scale seasonal and cyclical storage of hydrogen help deploy renewable energy?
25» What roles do gas storage facilities play for the future challenge of constant gas qualities?
26» Will the existing gas storage capacity in Europe be sufficient to cover the future storage and flexibility demand for hydrogen?
27» Is it safe to store pure hydrogen or hydrogen blends?